stock market exchange. Organized and regulated financial market where securities (bonds, notes, shares) are bought and sold at prices governed by the forces of demand and supply. Stock exchanges basically serve as (1) primary markets where corporations, governments, municipalities, and other incorporated bodies can raise capital by channeling savings of the investors into productive ventures; and (2) secondary markets where investors can sell their securities to other investors for cash, thus reducing the risk of investment and maintaining liquidity in the system. Stock exchanges impose stringent rules, listing requirements, and statutory requirements that are binding on all listed and trading parties.
Trades in the older exchanges are conducted on the floor (called the 'trading floor') of the exchange itself, by shouting orders and instructions (called open outcry system). On exchanges, trades are conducted over telephone or online. Almost all exchanges are 'auction exchanges' where buyers enter competitive bids and sellers enter competitive orders through a trading. Some European exchanges, however, use 'periodic auction' method in which round-robin calls are made once a trading.
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A stock market exchange is a forum provided by any organization, association, or group of persons for trading in securities representing shares of firms. a stock exchange performs two essential services. First, it provides a market for the buying and selling of stock. Second, it provides a way of monitoring the value of a stock investment portfolio.The statutory definition of exchange as specified by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is a ’market place or facilities for bringing together purchasers and sellers of securities or for otherwise performing with respect to securities the functions commonly performed by a stock exchange.’ The SEC carefully revised Rule 3b-16 to define these terms to mean any organization, association, or group of persons that: (1) brings together the orders of multiple buyers and sellers; and (2) uses established, nondiscretionary methods (whether by providing a trading facility or by setting rules) under which such orders with each other, and the buyers and sellers entering such orders agree to the terms of a trade.A particular trading system may not be recognized as an exchange, depending on the securities laws of the country. Given that differences across countries may exist with respect to legal definitions, a more detailed discussion of what constitutes a trading system is appropriate.
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