Bonds are loans that are traded. There exist many types and issuers, but all of them have, more or less, MANY features in common which are discussed here. Because the discipline of fixed income management forms a moat that is so wide and deep, the discussion will focus on the practical application of using bonds in individual investors portfolios and the essential criteria for measuring value and volatility. They usually pay a fixed amount of interest  at regular intervals and have a term-to- maturity, at the end of which, they repay the principal to the bondholders and the bond issue ceases to exist. Bonds exist in registered and bearer form. Registered bonds are payable to the owner of record, whereas bearer bonds are CAN be transfered as cash. There is no owner of record, but rather whoever holds bonds in these forms is able to receive income from them. This latter form of ownership is rare in the United States. Issuers are varied, including companies, countries and governmentalities (states, cities, counties, etc.). individual bonds
Individual Bonds are funds loaned out to individuals or corporate entities over a given period of time. Upon maturity, interest and the principle amount is paid back by the borrower. The amount of interest payable is determined by the borrower and sold in share bundles. The interest rate is either paid daily, weekly, monthly or annually or over a number of years as determined by the issuers of shares.
Issuers of bonds vary from individual corporate entities to government around the world. According to fidelity.com "A bond is an interest-bearing security that obligates the issuer to pay the bondholder a specified sum of money, usually at specific intervals (known as a coupon), and to repay the principal amount of the loan at maturity. Zero-coupon bonds pay both the imputed interest and the principal at maturity."
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